Project Lifecycle: Planning – Part 2

project planning

In Planning-Part 1, we discussed about; Introduction to Project Planning, Importance of a Project Plan, Stakeholder Involvement, and Timing of Planning.

And in Planning Part-2 we going to cover further that including:

  • Collect Requirements
  • Define Scope & Project Scope Statement
  • Create WBS (Work Breakdown Structure)
  • Estimate Cost and Determine Budget
  • Plan Communication Management
  • Plan Risk Management
  • Develop Schedule


Collect Requirements

As per the definition is given by PMI, “Collect Requirements is the process of determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs & requirements to meet project objectives”.  Requirements. This step is like gathering all the ingredients before you start cooking a complex dish. It’s all about understanding what needs to be done to make the project a success.

Collecting requirements is the process of figuring out what the project needs to achieve and why. It involves asking a lot of questions and listening carefully to the answers. Imagine you’re building a house. You need to know how many rooms it should have, what style the owner likes, and what materials you should use. That’s exactly what collecting requirements is in project planning.


1. Engage with Stakeholders

This step is not something you do alone. You need to talk to everyone who has a stake in the project. This includes clients, team members, and sometimes even end users. Their input is essential because they all see the project from different angles.

2. Use Different Techniques

There are many ways to collect requirements. You might hold interviews, send out surveys, or conduct group brainstorming sessions. The goal is to gather as much useful information as possible. Think of it as being a detective, looking for clues to solve a puzzle.

3. Document Everything Clearly

Once you collect all this information, you need to write it down clearly. This documentation becomes a guide for the entire project. It’s important to be detailed and precise, so everyone knows exactly what’s expected.


Define Scope

Setting the Boundaries of Your Project. After gathering all the necessary requirements, the next crucial step in our project planning journey is to define the scope of the project. Think of defining the scope as drawing the lines on a map to show where your journey will take you and, importantly, where it won’t.

Defining the scope means clearly outlining what the project will include and, just as importantly, what it will not include. It’s like deciding which cities you’ll visit on a road trip and which ones you’ll skip. This clarity helps prevent misunderstandings and keeps the project focused and on track.


1. Creating a Clear Picture

To define the scope, you need to turn the information gathered during the requirement collection into a clear and detailed description of the project. This should include the project goals, deliverables, tasks, deadlines, and limitations. It’s like writing down the itinerary for your journey, detailing every stop along the way.

2. Involving the Right People

Just like collecting requirements, defining scope should involve discussions with all key stakeholders. Their input ensures that the scope covers all necessary aspects of the project and aligns with their expectations. This step is crucial to get everyone’s agreement on what the project will achieve.

3. Documenting the Scope

Once you have defined the scope, it’s important to document it in a scope statement. This document will be your go-to guide throughout the project, helping to keep everyone on the same page. It’s like having a travel guidebook that everyone in your group refers to during the trip.


Create WBS (Work Breakdown Structure)

After establishing a clear Project Scope Statement, our next step in the project planning journey is to create a Work Breakdown Structure, commonly known as WBS. Think of the WBS as a puzzle. Just like breaking a large puzzle into smaller, manageable pieces makes it easier to solve, the WBS breaks down the project into smaller, more manageable parts.

A Work Breakdown Structure is a tool that divides the project’s scope into smaller, more manageable components. It’s like creating a family tree for your project where the final deliverable is at the top, and it branches out into smaller pieces of work.


1. Breaking Down the Project

Creating a WBS involves dividing the main project deliverable into smaller pieces until they are small enough to be assigned and managed easily. These pieces are called ‘work packages.’ A work package could be a phase, a deliverable, or a task necessary to complete the project.


2. The Benefits of a WBS

The WBS has several key benefits:

  • Improved Project Organization: It helps organize and define the total scope of the project.
  • Clear Task Assignments: Makes it easier to assign responsibilities to team members.
  • Better Estimations: Assists in estimating costs and timelines more accurately.
  • Enhanced Tracking: Simplifies monitoring and controlling project progress.


3. Visualizing the Project

Often, a WBS is represented visually, like a chart or a diagram. This visualization makes it easier to understand the relationship between different parts of the project and how they fit together.

4. Collaboration and Communication

Developing a WBS is a collaborative process. It involves the project team, stakeholders, and sometimes even clients. This collaboration ensures that all aspects of the project are understood and agreed upon.


Estimate Cost and Determine Budget

Following the creation of the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), our next crucial step in the project planning process is to estimate costs and determine the budget. This stage is like setting a budget for a big event – it involves calculating how much money you’ll need and ensuring you have enough to cover all expenses.

Estimating costs involves predicting the monetary resources required to complete the project. This includes everything from material costs, labor, equipment, to any other expenses that might arise. Determining the budget, on the other hand, is about setting a financial limit for the project to ensure that costs don’t spiral out of control.


1. The Art of Cost Estimation

Cost estimation is both an art and a science. It involves:

  • Analyzing the WBS: Look at each component in your WBS and estimate the cost for each part.
  • Considering All Factors: Don’t forget to include indirect costs like administration expenses, along with direct costs like materials and labor.
  • Using Historical Data: If similar projects have been done before, use their data to guide your estimates.


2. Determining the Project Budget

Once you have your cost estimates, it’s time to determine the overall budget. This includes:

  • Adding Contingency Funds: Always include a buffer for unexpected costs.
  • Reviewing with Stakeholders: Make sure that the budget aligns with stakeholders’ expectations and limitations.
  • Setting Baselines: Establish clear financial baselines for monitoring and controlling project costs.


3. The Importance of Accuracy and Flexibility

Accurate cost estimation and budget determination are crucial for the financial health of the project. However, it’s important to remain flexible, as projects often encounter unforeseen expenses or changes in scope.

4. Tools and Techniques

Various tools and techniques can be used for cost estimation and budgeting, including spreadsheet software, cost estimation software, and expert judgment.


Plan Communication Management

Keeping everyone in the Loop turn our attention to a vital component – planning communication management. Just as a captain needs to maintain clear and constant communication with their crew, a project manager must ensure effective communication among all project stakeholders.

Communication management is about planning how to exchange information throughout the project. This step is crucial because it ensures that everyone involved has the right information at the right time. It’s like setting up a system for passing messages in a big team, making sure everyone stays informed and aligned.


1. Identifying Stakeholders’ Communication Needs

Each stakeholder might have different needs regarding how often they want updates and what kind of information they require. Some might need detailed reports, while others prefer quick summaries. It’s important to understand and plan for these varying needs.

2. Choosing the Right Tools and Methods

There are many ways to communicate in a project – emails, meetings, reports, or even project management software. Your plan should outline which methods will be used for different types of information and stakeholders.

3. Creating a Communication Schedule

Just like a timetable, your communication plan should include a schedule. This might mean weekly emails, monthly meetings, or regular updates on a project management platform. The key is to be consistent and timely.

4. Ensuring Clarity and Transparency

Good communication is clear and straightforward. Avoid jargon and complex language. Transparency is also vital – it’s important to share both good news and bad, so everyone understands the project’s true state.

5. Adapting to Changes

Be prepared to adjust your communication plan as the project progresses. As situations change, so too might the need for different types of communication.


Plan Risk Management

Navigating Potential Challenges. As we delve further into the project planning process, the next crucial step is to plan for risk management. Think of this as preparing for a journey by anticipating and planning for any potential roadblocks or detours. Effective risk management is about foreseeing what could go wrong and having a plan to handle it.

Risk management in a project involves identifying, analyzing, and responding to potential risks that could negatively impact the project. It’s a proactive approach to minimize problems before they occur.


1. Identifying Risks

The first step is to identify potential risks. This involves brainstorming with your team, consulting stakeholders, and reviewing past projects for insights. Risks can be anything from budget overruns and delays to technical issues and resource shortages.

2. Analyzing Risks

Once you’ve identified potential risks, the next step is to analyze them. This means assessing how likely each risk is to occur and what impact it would have on the project. Some risks might be minor and easily managed, while others could be major threats to your project’s success.

3. Prioritizing Risks

Not all risks are created equal. Some require more attention and resources than others. Prioritizing risks helps you focus on what’s most important and allocate your resources effectively.

4. Developing Risk Responses

For each significant risk, develop a response plan. This might involve ways to avoid the risk, reduce its impact, or even accept it if it’s a minor issue. The key is to have a strategy in place for dealing with risks.

5. Regular Reviews and Updates

Risk management is an ongoing process. As the project progresses, new risks might emerge, and existing risks might change. Regularly reviewing and updating your risk management plan is essential for it to remain effective.


Develop Schedule

After establishing a risk management plan, our next step in the project planning process is to develop the project schedule. This stage is akin to creating a detailed itinerary for a long journey. Developing a schedule is about laying out a timeline for when each task and milestone in the project will be completed.

A project schedule is more than just a list of deadlines. It’s a comprehensive roadmap that coordinates all project activities. By outlining who will do what and by when, it helps ensure that the project stays on track and meets its deadlines.


1. Breaking Down Tasks

Using the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) as a basis, break down each component into individual tasks. This step involves defining the start and end dates for each task, making it clear how long each part of the project should take.

2. Assigning Resources

Next, assign resources to each task. This means deciding which team members will be responsible for each task and ensuring they have the necessary time and tools to complete it.

3. Sequencing Activities

Determine the order in which tasks need to be completed. Some tasks will depend on the completion of others, so it’s important to sequence them correctly. This is often visualized using a Gantt chart, which shows tasks over time.

4. Estimating Duration

For each task, estimate how long it will take to complete. This can be based on past experience, industry standards, or input from team members who will be doing the work.

5. Integrating Milestones and Deadlines

Include key milestones and deadlines in your schedule. These are important checkpoints that help you and your stakeholders track the project’s progress.

6. Allowing for Flexibility

While it’s important to be as accurate as possible, also build some flexibility into your schedule. Projects often encounter unforeseen challenges, so it’s wise to have some buffer time.

7. Regular Reviews and Adjustments

Finally, remember that a project schedule is not set in stone. Regularly review and adjust it as needed based on the project’s progress and any changes that occur.



Each of the steps, from the initial planning stages to the final scheduling, contributes significantly to the overarching goal of delivering a successful project. They collectively represent the art and science of project planning.

Mastering these elements allows project managers and teams to navigate the complexities of project execution with confidence, ensuring that projects are completed on time, within budget, and to the desired quality standards. This comprehensive approach to project planning is what ultimately leads to effective project management and successful project outcomes.

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